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DevOps capabilities

Test data management

Note: Test data management is one of a set of capabilities that drive higher software delivery and organizational performance. These capabilities were discovered by the DORA State of DevOps research program, an independent, academically rigorous investigation into the practices and capabilities that drive high performance. To learn more, read our DevOps resources.

Automated testing is a key component of modern software delivery practices. The ability to execute a comprehensive set of unit, integration, and system tests is essential to verify that your app or service behaves as expected, and can be safely deployed to production. To ensure that your tests are validating realistic scenarios, it’s critical to supply the tests with realistic data.

Test data is important because it’s required by all kinds of tests throughout your test suite, including manual and automated tests. Good test data lets you validate common or high value user journeys, test for edge cases, reproduce defects, and simulate errors.

However, it’s hard to use and manage test data effectively. Over-reliance on data defined outside of test scope can make your tests brittle and increase maintenance costs. Dependencies on external data sources can introduce delays and impact test performance. Copying production data introduces risk because it might contain sensitive information. To address these challenges, you need to manage your test data carefully and strategically.

How to implement test data management

Analysis done by DevOps Research and Assessment (DORA) shows that successful teams approach test data management with the following core principles:

  • Adequate test data is available to run full automated test suites.
  • Test data for automated test suites can be acquired on demand.
  • Test data does not limit or constrain the automated tests that teams can run.

To improve test data management processes, strive to meet each of these conditions in all of your development teams. These practices can also positively contribute to your overall test automation and continuous integration capabilities.

Common pitfalls in test data management

Managing test data can be hard. The following pitfalls are common in test data management:

  • Over-reliance on data in testing. In particular, unit tests should not depend on data or state external to the test.
  • Using a full copy of the production database, rather than identifying relevant or important portions.
  • Not masking or hashing sensitive data.
  • Relying on data that is out of date or no longer relevant.

Ways to improve test data management

The following practices can help you use test data more effectively and efficiently:

  1. Favor unit tests. Unit tests should be independent of each other and any other part of the system except the code being tested. Unit tests should not depend on external data. As defined by the test automation pyramid, unit tests should make up the majority of your tests. Well-written unit tests that run against a well-designed codebase are much easier to triage and cheaper to maintain than higher-level tests. Increasing the coverage of your unit tests can help minimize your reliance on higher-level tests that consume external data.

    Test automation pyramid.

  2. Minimize reliance on test data. Test data requires careful and ongoing maintenance. As your APIs and interfaces evolve, you must update or re-create related test data. This process represents a cost that can negatively impact team velocity. Hence, it’s good practice to minimize the amount of test data needed to run automated tests.

  3. Isolate your test data. Run your tests in well-defined environments with controlled inputs and expected outputs that can be compared to actual outputs. Make sure that data consumed by a particular test is explicitly associated with that test, and isn’t modified by other tests or processes. Wherever possible, your tests should create the necessary state themselves as part of setup, using the application’s APIs. Isolating your test data is also a prerequisite for tests to run in parallel.

  4. Minimize reliance on test data stored in databases. Maintaining test data stored in databases can be particularly challenging for the following reasons:

    1. Poor test isolation. Databases store data durably; any changes to the data will persist across tests unless explicitly reset. Less reliable test inputs make test isolation more difficult, and can prevent parallelization.
    2. Performance impact. Speed of execution is a key requirement for automated tests. Interacting with a database is typically slower and more cumbersome than interacting with locally stored data. Favor in-memory databases where appropriate.
  5. Make test data readily available. Running tests against a copy of a full production database introduces risk. It can be challenging and slow to get the data refreshed. As a result, the data can become out of date. Production data can also contain sensitive information. Instead, identify relevant sections of data that the tests require. Export these sections regularly and make them easily available to tests.

How to measure test data management

As your approach to test data management evolves, it’s important to measure your progress against the core principles outlined earlier.

  1. Adequate test data is available to run full automated test suites. You can measure this by tracking how much time developers and testers spend managing and manipulating data for use in test suites. You can also capture this by perceptual measures (that is, surveys) to ask teams if they have adequate data for their work, or if they feel this is a constraint for them.
  2. Test data for automated test suites can be acquired on demand. You can measure this as the percentage of key data sets that are available, how often those data sets are accessed, and how often they are refreshed.
  3. Test data doesn’t limit or constrain the automated tests that teams can run. You can measure this as the number of automated tests that can be run without the need to acquire additional test data. You can also capture this with perceptual measures (that is, surveys), to ask teams if they feel that test data limits their automated testing activities.

What’s next

DevOps Capabilities